Kakkar and Kaur119 prepared hermetically sealed lipid NPs of CUR (CUR-SLNPs) once enhanced bioavailability and investigated its therapeutic rolein alleviating behavioral, biological and histochemical changes about oral administration of AlCl3 in male Lacca mice. Adverse effects of AlCl3 were certainly reversed by oral administration of CUR-SLNPs. Histopathology of the brain sections of CUR-SLNPs treated groups indicated significant improvements and as well as highlighted the potential of the use of CUR-SLNPs for treatment of AD. Kakkar et al120 in addition to investigated CUR-SLNPs in the experimental paradigm of cerebral ischemia by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) model in rats. An move in front of 90% in cognition and 52% inhibition of acetylcholinesterase hostile to cerebral ischemic group were observed after administration of CURSLNPs. Levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione and mitochondrial puzzling enzyme happenings were significantly increased, but lipid peroxidation, nitrite and acetylcholinesterase levels decreased after CUR-SLNPs administration. Gammascintigraphic psychiatry showed 16.4 and 30 period take to the fore in brain bioavailability a propos oral and i.v administration of CUR-SLNPs down solubilized CUR. CUR-SLNPs gone their enlarged bioavailability have been an on the go armament adjoining cerebral ischemic injure and could be an attribute to enhanced antioxidant potential and resultant superoxide anion production achieved by packaging CUR into a sufficient carrier system for bigger brain delivery. Puglia et al121 formulated CUR loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC-CUR) in order to accessory the bioavailability and stability of CUR after systemic administration taking into consideration increased effects in the central keen system (CNS). NLC-CUR were logically injected and the effects in the CNS were compared in the back CUR counsel formulation containing DMSO-CUR. CUR can adept to subside histone acetylation in the CNS following induced in NLCs. Western blot analysis showed that intraperitoneal injection of NLC-CUR in mice induces a marked hypoacetylation of histone 4 (H4) at lysine 12 (K12) in the spinal cord compared following the control society. This right to use can ameliorate the pharmacokinetics of CUR that allowed a bigger permeation in the CNS.
Mayadevi et al122 reported curcumin and its analogs such as two pyrazole derivatives and an isoxazole derivative showed inhibition of the Ca2-dependent and Ca2-independent behavior of calcium/ calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in vitro. Pyrazole derivative, (3,5-bis[b-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) ethenyl] pyrazole was more functional as an inhibitor of CaMKII and was more operating upon Ca2 independent in the deed of purified CaMKII and in addition to in PSD and cytosolic CaMKII fractions. The pyrazole CUR offered neuroprotective function in the excitotoxic cascade by inhibiting CaMKII struggle. Glucagon-plus peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone secreted from enteroendocrine L-cells. Enhancing the GLP-1 undertaking is an important desire for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Takikawa et al123 reported CUR significantly stimulated GLP-1 secretion in GLUTag cells and significant mass working the Ca2-CaMKII alleyway and was independent of the cAMP/PKA, PKC and MEK-ERK pathways.
Recemic tetrahydrocurcumin (THC), tetrahydrodemethoxycurcumin (THDC) and tetrahydro bisdemethoxycurcumin (THBDC) dihydropyrimidinone (DHPM) analogs were synthesized by utilizing the multi-component Biginelli salutation in the presence of copper sulfate as catalyst. The review of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for Alzheimer’s disease of these analogs showed that they exhibited progressive inhibitory dispute than the CUR. THBDC-DHPM demonstrated the most potent inhibitory upheaval taking into consideration excellent IC50 value, which is slightly more potent than that of galanthamine.124 A series of CUR based diarylheptanoid analogs were synthesized using merged carbon-carbon grip formation upon the multifaceted catalytic properties of titanocene complexes and evaluated their connected together together along along with-glioblastoma and adjacent to-neuroblastoma properties. These analogs proved efficacious adjoining neuroblastoma (SK-NSH and SK-N-FI) and glioblastoma multiforme (U87MG) cell lines.
Hagl et al126 prepared marginal CUR micelles and investigated the bioavailability in vivo in NMRI mice and the effects of original CUR and a newly developed CUR micelles formulation upon mitochondrial conflict in vitro in PC12 cells and ex vivo in lonesome mouse brain mitochondria. CUR micelles enlarged bioavailability of original CUR vis–vis 10e40 fold in plasma and brain of mice. CUR micelles proved to be more efficient in preventing mitochondrial throb in without help mouse brain mitochondria and protecting PC12 cells from nitrosative bring out than indigenous CUR. CUR micelles might be a highly thought of substance for the prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration, which both may minister to age-united disorders as well as AD.