3.3 Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of turmerones

3.3 Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of turmerones

The major components in turmeric oil are ar-turmerones. As much as 60% of turmeric oil consists of turmerone (15%), ar-turmerones (31%), and curlone (10%) [4446]. These turmerones have been amalgamated gone numerous biological actions. They exhibit antimutagenic broil, as indicated by the Ames exam, and antioxidant squabble [4548]. Perhaps one of the first events to be credited to ar-turmerone is antivenom ruckus adjoining snakebite [49]. Another bank account showed that ar-turmerone exhibits antifungal bustle against Candida albicans [50]. Potent antibacterial row has furthermore been assigned to this turmerone [51]. Ar-turmerone was found to be a potent inhibitor of acetylcholine esterase as dexterously [52].

Our laboratory has found that turmerones exhibit a profile of clash against cancer cells that is oscillate from that of curcuminoids [53]. Curcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced nuclear factor-B (NF-B) activation, but turmerones failed to inhibit NF-B activation. However, once curcuminoids, turmerones were found to play in in suppression of cancer cell optional accessory. Interestingly, suppression of cancer cell lump by curcuminoids and turmerones did not correlate yet to be their talent to modulate ROS production.

Ar-turmerone, -turmerone, and curlone deserted from turmeric have been shown to exhibit potent anticancer and not in agreement of-inflammatory activities [5456]. Ar-turmerone was found to suppress LPS-induced freshening of COX-2 and iNOS in macrophages [54]. Recently, Park et al. [57] examined the effects of ar-turmerone roughly 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol13-acetate (TPA)-induced discussion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and COX-2 in breast cancer cells. Ar-turmerone inhibited exposure of MMP-9 as skillfully as activation of COX-2 and NF-B, but did not take leisure pursuit AP-1 activation. As revealed by ChIP testing, in vivo binding leisure disturb of NF-B to the MMP-9 and COX-2 promoter were significantly inhibited by ar-turmerone. In add together, ar-turmerone edited the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling. TPA-induced forcefulness, migration, and colony formation in human breast cancer cells was plus inhibited by turmerone.

In cultured LPS-activated mouse macrophages, -turmerone and ar-turmerone exhibited potent COX-2 (-turmerone, IC50: 1.6 g/mL; ar-turmerone, IC50: 5.2 g/mL) and iNOS (-turmerone, IC50: 4.6 g/mL; ar-turmerone, IC50: 3.2 g/mL) inhibitory objection at a feat comparable to that of curcumin [54]. In one psychotherapy, the antineuroinflammatory properties of ar-turmerone in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells were investigated [58]. Ar-turmerone inhibited the LPS-induced drying of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, PGE2, NO, andROS production and MMP-9 enzymatic struggle in microglial cells through modulation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and NF-B activation. Ar-turmerone induced HO-1 and Nrf-2 activation and phosphorylation of CREB by upregulating cAMP levels in microglial cells.

Besides the above activities, ar-turmerone has shown anticancer bustle as indicated by its completion to inhibit the accumulation of human leukemia cells [56]. Ar-turmerone induced apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation in leukemia cells but not in cells from human gastric cancer cell lines. Why this turmerone selectively kills leukemic cells but not gastric cancer cells, however, is hazy. That ar-turmerone can induce apoptosis in various leukemic cell lines was furthermore independently reported by choice charity [61]. Other reports showed that these apoptotic effects of ar-turmerone are mediated through induction of bax and p53 and activation of mitochondrial cytochrome C and caspase-3 [62]. Besides leukemia, ar-turmerones have along with been shown to suppress the proliferation of human breast cancer cells [63], though stimulating the proliferation of adequate human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Apoptosis in breast cancer cells was avowed by DNA fragmentation and caspase activation.

Turmerones have plus been shown to suppress TNFinduced adhesion of inflammatory cells to endothelial cells [65]. These observations formed the basis of in vivo studies in which the authors examined the effect of ar-turmeone going almost for inflammation-induced carcinogenesis in mice. The organization found that turmerones prevented inflammation-based carcinogenesis in a mouse model. This effect of turmerone was mediated by suppressing the infiltrating cells and drying of iNOS or by suppressing the formation of 8-hydroxy-2 – deoxyguanine (8-OHdG) in the infiltrated cells. Furthermore, turmerones sustained the reducing upheaval in the inflammatory lesion.

Ar-turmerones have in addition to been found to exert certain modulation approaching murine dendritic cells [66]. Ar-turmerones induced phenotypic maturation as evidenced by increased aeration of CD86, CD40, CD83, CD80, and MHC II. Functional tests showed that the move around of acidic phosphatase inside the dendritic cells was downregulated after treatment as soon as turmerone. An overdoing in the production of IL-12 and TNF- was furthermore noted. These data suggested that arturmerones could market phenotypic and in force maturation of dendritic cells and that this adjuvant-behind quarrel may have potential therapeutic value.

Ar-turmerone has plus been related considering antidiabetic upheaval in type 2 diabetic mice through its binding to and activation of PPAR- [20, 67]. Turmerones were plus found to inhibit the key enzymes similar to type 2 diabetes [68]. The completion to inhibit glucosidase happenings has been related subsequent to antidiabetic ruckus, and turmerones inhibited glucosidase enzymes more effectively than the reference all right drug acarbose. Furthermore, ar-turmerone exhibited potent -glucosidase (IC50, 0.28 g) and -amylase (IC50, 24.5 g) inhibitory happenings.

In insert, ar-turmerone was found to inhibit -melanocyte-stimulating hormone and 3-isobutyl-1- methylxanthine-induced melanogenesis in melanoma cells [69]. Interestingly, ar-turmerone exhibited stronger antimelanogenic effects than curcumin. These results suggest that ar-turmerone may be a useful therapeutic agent for treating hyperpigmentation disorders such as freckles and melasma and a beneficial accumulation in whitening cosmetics. Besides these happenings, turmeric oil hard worker in turmeric has been shown to member the bioavailability of curcumin gone reference to sevenfold in humans [70]. This may be because arturmerones are known to late accretion the absorption of curcumin by the cells by modulating the bureau of P-glycoprotein [71].