There is a lot of evidence that many herbal medicines are effective in helping medical conditions where either there is no allopathic drug treatment is effective or the effects of pharmacological drugs is risky. We all know that the drugs are effective but may have side effects. One needs to read the list of side effects once to be cautious in using these chemical drugs. There is no cure or treatment for memory problems in medical science. We are living in stressful period and the students are exposed to such a presure and a variety of distractions that their memory is constantly in demand and there is a feeling of inadequacy.Ginkgo Biloba is a herbal extract and has ingredient EGB 761 which improves nerve transmission and memory function. The initial experiments in animals and subsequent in human beings have shown beneficial effects. It is believed that the flavonoid and terpenoid components of Ginkgo extract might produce beneficial therapeutic effects through mechanisms acting separately or in concert, such as the antagonism of PAF (platelet activating factor), antioxidant and metabolic actions, and effects on neurotransmitters.…….
Ginkgo Biloba is a herbal extract and has ingredient EGB 761 which improves nerve transmission and memory function.
Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2008 Jul-Aug;71(4):57-63.
Ginkgo Biloba preparations exhibit nootropic activity in the absence of side effects, which is confirmed by numerous experimental observations and clinical results. The neuroprotector effect of these drugs is based on the antitoxicant action, antioxidant properties, and the ability to normalize the neuromediator and energy transfer mechanisms in cerebral neurons. In this review, recent data on the influence of various Ginkgo Biloba preparations on the cognitive functions in animals and humans and neurochemical mechanisms of the nootropic effect are summarized.
Wien Med Wochenschr. 2002;152(15-16):418-22.
Value of Ginkgo biloba in treatment of Alzheimer dementia
Loew D. German
During the last decade, there has been an explosive growth of research concerning the extract of Ginkgo biloba termed Egb 761. In experimental studies, animal studies and clinical studies Ginkgo biloba has shown a similar pharmacological potency and clinical efficacy like synthetic defined drugs in the therapy of reduced cerebral performance. Ginkgo biloba special extract Egb 761 is a standardized and highly purified extract of Ginkgo leaves. Among the active constituents are the ginkgo-flavone glycosides and the terpene-lactones (ginkgolides, bilobalide). The multifactorial principle of action of Ginkgo biloba is characterized by rheological and blood-flow-promoting properties, protective effects against ischaemia and hypoxia, effects on nerve cell energy metabolism, antioedematous and myelin-protective effects, radical-scavenger activity, effects on various cerebral transmitter and receptor systems. These action principles constitute the rationale for clinical trials in vascular dementia and primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type, and in mixed forms of both. The cerebral bioavailability of Ginkgo biloba extract has been demonstrated by electroencephalography. In clinical trials of different working-groups, effects of Ginkgo biloba on the cognitive performance, global function, and activities of the daily living have been found. Metaanalysis in the indication–demential disorders–comparing Ginkgo biloba versus acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have shown a similar clinical efficacy of both therapy regimens with an additional drug safety benefit for Ginkgo. Due to the clinical efficacy the WHO accepted Ginkgo biloba as an antidemeitia drug and add it in January 2000 into the recent ATC-Classification Index. In future antidementive therapy drugs with an different mode of action should be given in combination. Furthermore clinical trials with fixed combinations of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with Ginkgo biloba extracts in moderate or severe dementia would be necessary.
Actions of Ginkgo Biloba related to potential utility for the treatment of conditions involving cerebral hypoxia.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10983836 Gingo will thus be quite useful in cerebrovascular events like the results of cerebral palsy in young age and stroke in adults. There is also evidence that the blood supply to the brain reduces with age resulting into decreased memory. Gingko Biloba and cognitive enhancer Super Brain will thus be quite effective in this and is higly valued.
Med Hypotheses. 2000 Dec;55(6):491-3.
Can the cognitive enhancing effects of ginkgo biloba be explained by its pharmacology?
Nathan P1. Brain Sciences Institute, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia. firstname.lastname@example.org
Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that the extract of the leaves of Ginkgo biloba has modest therapeutic potential as a cognitive enhancing drug. The pharmacology of Ginkgo biloba is complex due to its multiple active constituents. While Ginkgo biloba’s cognitive enhancing effects have been attributed to its platelet-activating factor antagonistic effects and its free-radical scavenger activity, recent evidence suggests it may have direct effects on the cholinergic system which might explain both its acute and chronic cognitive enhancing effects. Ginkgo biloba’s direct cholinergic actions include reduction of scopolamine-induced amnesia, modulation of pre-synaptic choline uptake and acetylcholine release, upregulation of post-synaptic muscarnic receptors and indirect effects on cholinergic function by modulation of the serotonergic system. The overall pharmacodynamic effect of Ginkgo biloba is likely due to a combination of platelet activating factor antagonistic effects, free radical scavenging activity and modulation of cholinergic function.
Drugs R D. 2003;4(3):188-93.
EGb 761: ginkgo biloba extract, Ginkor Effect.
EGb 761 [Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761, Rökan, Tanakan, Tebonin] is a standardised extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves and has antioxidant properties as a free radical scavenger. A standardised extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves is a well defined product and contains approximately 24% flavone glycosides (primarily quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin) and 6% terpene lactones (2.8-3.4% ginkgolides A, B and C, and 2.6-3.2% bilobalide). Ginkgolide B and bilobalide account for about 0.8% and 3% of the total extract, respectively. Other constituents include proanthocyanadins, glucose, rhamnose, organic acids, D-glucaric and ginkgolic acids. EGb 761 promotes vasodilation and improves blood flow through arteries, veins and capillaries. It inhibits platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time. EGb 761, which was originated by Dr Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals (Dr Willmar Schwabe Group), has been available in Europe as a herbal extract since the early 1990s. However, products containing EGb 761 are not approved for use by the US FDA. As a dietary supplement, Nature’s Way in the US distributes and markets a standardised extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (the EGb 761 Formula) under the name Gingold Nature’s Way. The French company Beaufour-Ipsen and its German subsidiary Ipsen Pharma are co-developing EGb 761 with Dr Willmar Schwabe Group. Beaufour-Ipsen (France) is developing EGb 761 as Tanakan, Dr Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals (Germany) as Tebonin and Ipsen Pharma (Germany) as Rökan. Intersan was formerly developing EGb 761 in Germany, but Intersan appears to have been merged into Ipsen Pharma. However, there has been no recent development for these indications. In the UK and other European countries, the cardioprotective effects of EGb 761 in myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion are being investigated in preclinical studies. The psychological and physiological benefits of ginkgo are said to be based on its primary action of regulating neurotransmitters and exerting neuroprotective effects in the brain, protecting against or retarding nerve cell degeneration. Ginkgo also benefits vascular microcirculation by improving blood flow in small vessels and has antioxidant activity. There has been conflicting evidence about the benefits of ginkgo, e.g. the ginkgo clinical trial published in August 2002 in JAMA concluded that a leading ginkgo supplement did not produce measurable benefits for memory in healthy adults over 60, although a month earlier, another study concluded that the same ginkgo extract is effective in helping normal healthy older adults in memory and concentration. However, in December 2002, the Cochrane Collaboration, the world’s most respected scientific reviewer of clinical trials in medicine, concluded that the published literature strongly supports the safety and potential benefits of ginkgo in treating memory loss and cognitive disorders associated with age- related dementia. A phase II study of EGb 761 in combination with fluorouracil is in progress in Germany in patients with pancreatic cancer. German researchers are investigating the potential of EGb 761 for the treatment of sudden deafness and tinnitus in clinical studies. EGb 761 was undergoing preclinical development for the potential treatment of diabetes in France, diabetic neuropathies in Russia, and cancer in Brazil. However, there has been no recent development for these indications. Beaufour-Ipsen has expressed the intention to license out its diabetes projects that may include EGb 761.